Environment

Due to Bhutan’s location and unique geographical and climatic variations, it is one of the world’s last
remaining biodiversity hotspots.
Bhutan pristine environment, with high rugged mountains and deep valleys, offers ecosystems that are
both rich and diverse. Recognizing the importance of the environment, conservation of its rich
biodiversity is one of the government’s development paradigms.
The government has enacted a law that shall maintain at least 60% of its forest cover for all time. Today,
approximately 72% of the total land area of Bhutan is under forest cover and approximately 60% of the
land area falls under protected areas comprising of 10 national parks and sanctuaries.


National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries

Each of Bhutan’s National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries are an essential part of the Bhutan Biological
Conservation Complex – a system of national parks, protected areas and forest corridors covering 60% of the
country. Each of these parks and sanctuaries has its own special character and are home to endangered animals,
birds and plants.


JIGME SINGYE WANGCHUCK NATIONAL PARK
Located in the central part of the country, Jigme Singye Wangchuck National Park covers 1,300 sq.km and is the
second largest protected area of Bhutan.
High ice peaks fall away to low conifer and broadleaf forests. The park remains one of the largest undisturbed tracks
of forest anywhere in the Himalaya’s. The varying altitude and rainfall have created a wide range of climatic
conditions, making it home to many species of plants, animals and birds.
Both musk deer and Himalayan black bear can be found here. The golden langur, which is quite common in Bhutan,
the rare clouded leopard, the red panda and the Royal Bengal tiger are among some of the many species found here.
The eastern side of the park supports about 20% of Bhutan’s tiger population and the park itself forms an important
link between the northern and southern tiger populations.
It is also home to 391 bird species of which seven species are among some of the world’s most endangered species.
Phobjikha valley, a buffer zone to the park, is the winter habitat of the Black Necked Crane. More than 260 majestic
cranes winter in Phobjikha every year.


TRUMSHINGLA NATIONAL PARK
Situated at the very heart of the country and covering 768 sq. km, Thrumshingla National was officially opened in
July 1998.
Pristine forests ranging from alpine to subtropical broadleaf combined with dramatic mountains are home to, snow
leopards, tigers, red pandas and rare plants. This creates a globally important and unique environment.
ith its elevation ranging from less than m to more than m and tem eratures of etween – to
C, the park has some of the most diverse climatic variations and habitats in the world. The park made news in 2000
when a WWF-supported survey team captured a camera-trap image of a tiger at 3,000 meters – the first
photographic evidence that the magnificent creatures exist at such high altitudes. Besides that, the park has 341
species of birds making it truly a irdwatcher’s paradise.
Tourism helps to sustain the lives of the communities within the park, with an effective management plan in place
and dedicated park staff along with WWF support. The park is set to remain in pristine condition for generations to
come.


ROYAL MANAS NATIONAL PARK
Bhutan’s Crown Jewel, the Manas National Park represents the largest example of tropical and sub-tropical
ecosystems in Bhutan.
This park has only recently been opened to the public and offers thousands of animal and plant species, many of
which are globally endangered, it is not only the most diverse protected area in the Kingdom but also noted as one of
the world’s biologically outstanding parks.
Lying in south central Bhutan, Manas is connected at the southern border with India’s Manas Tiger Reserve, a
World Heritage Site. To the north it borders the Jigme Singye Wangchuck National Park. Royal Manas was
designated a wildlife sanctuary in 1966 making it Bhutan’s oldest protected area. The area was upgraded to a
National Park in 1993.
There are wide climate variations in Royal Manas. The May-September monsoons bring up to 5,000mm of rain.
Rainfall is negligible in winter and the climate is extremely pleasant from November till March.
Manas is also extremely rich in wildlife species, including the highly endangered Royal Bengal tiger, Asian
elephant, greater one-horned rhinoceros, clouded leopard, Himalayan black bear, gangetic dolphin and pangolin.
Found virtually nowhere else in the world is the especially rare golden langur, a primate of extraordinary grace and
beauty with its long, silky blond fur.
More than 365 species of birds have been officially recorded in Royal Manas National Park with an additional 200
believed to be in residence. Species found here include the globally threatened rufous-necked hornbill, Pallas fishing
eagle, great white-bellied heron, spotted wren-babbler, blue-headed rock thrush and emerald cuckoo. Many of the
ark’s more than 900 types of plants have commercial, medicinal, traditional and religious significance.
WWF and Bhutan’s Nature Conservation Division jointly developed a five-year conservation management plan
which includes training and equipping park staff, improving park infrastructure, and supporting biological and
socio-economic surveys and park monitoring programs.


JIGME DORJI NATIONAL PARK
With an area of 4,349 sq. km, the Jigme Dorji National Park is the largest protected area in Bhutan. It is one of the
most biologically rich areas in the Eastern Himalayan region, and stretches from warm broad-leaved forests to
permanent ice fields and glaciers on Bhutan’s north-western border.
The monsoon rains and a varied topographical gradient, from just over 1,000 meters to more than 7,000 meters
above sea level, account for this rich plant and animal diversity.
Sacred peaks such as Jomolhari, Tsherimgang and Jichu Drakey are prominent landmarks in the park. Glaciers and
glacial lakes are interspersed in the mountains forming important head waters for some of Bhutan’s main rivers.
The alpine region houses numerous flowers such as the national flower blue poppy, edelweiss, orchids and
rhododendrons among many others.
Charismatic animal species like the Snow Leopard, Takin, Tiger, Black Bear, Blue Sheep and Red Panda inhabit the
forests and mountains of the park. This may be the only place in the world where the Royal Bengal tiger and snow
leopard habitats overlap. Most of Bhutan’s most popular trekking routes can be found inside the Jigme Dorji
National Park.


BUMDELING WILDLIFE SANCTUARY
Bumdeling Wildlife Sanctuary is located in north-western part of Bhutan covering an area of 1,545 sq. km with 420
sq. km of buffer zone encompassing parts of Trashiyangtse, Lhuntshe, and Mongar district. It shares international
borders with the Tibetan region of China in the north and India in the north east. The sanctuary is home to around
100 species of mammals, including globally endangered species such as snow leopard, Royal Bengal tiger and red
panda.
About 150 black necked cranes spend their winter in Bumdeling every year from mid-November to early March.
Bumdeling Wildlife Sanctuary is also a paradise for butterflies: as of now 130 species have been recorded and
another 120 are expected to inhabit this area. Besides natural beauty and diversity many significant religious and
cultural places can be found inside the sanctuary, such as Rigsum Gompa, the mystic Singye Dzong and
Dechenphodrang Lhaghang– maybe the most scenic monastery in the country.